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Bloom's Taxonomy: Understanding A Critical Thinking Framework

By Dr Art Lynch

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  • Revised Blooms levels are listed below...APA revision 2001.

  • Remembering: Can we recall or remember information from long-term memory?

  • Understanding: Can we internalize, recall, and connect with other information?

  • Applying: Can we use the information in a new way?

  • Analyzing: Can we distinguish between the different parts, meaning the parts and subparts, how components work together?

  • Evaluating: Can we justify a stand or decision?

  • Creating: Can we create new product or point of view?

Remember
Retrieve relevant information from long-term memory.
Understand
Construct meaning from oral, written, or graphic messages.
Apply
Carry out or use a procedure.
Analyze
Divide material into constituent parts and determine how they relate to one another and to overall structure.
Evaluate
Make judgments based on criteria and standards.
Create
Reorganize or put together elements to form a new structure or pattern.
Factual Knowledge
Basic elements needed to be acquainted with a discipline
Define, Identify, Label, Name, Order, Outline, Recall, Recognize Classify, Identify, Indicate, Recognize, Restate, Select, Summarize Complete, Fill out, Translate Organize, Arrange Rank, Grade Combine, Join, Merge
Conceptual Knowledge
Relationships among basic elements that enable them to function together
Describe, Recite Clarify, Compare, Contrast, Differentiate, Explain, Generalize, Infer, Map, Match Apply, Choose, Complete, Determine, Interpret, Modify Debate, Determine, Discriminate, Distinguish, Integrate, Interpret Assess, Detect, Rate Arrange, Assemble, Compile, Devise, Hypothesize, Plan, Predict
Procedural Knowledge
Use of methods, skills, techniques, and algorithms
Order, Recite Conclude, Demonstrate, Exemplify Calculate, Compute, Employ, Formulate, Illustrate, Implement, Perform, Produce, Use Structure, Revise Coordinate, Estimate, Measure, Score, Test Compose, Conclude, Construct, Design, Generate, Modify, Reconstruct
Metacognitive Knowledge
Knowledge and awareness of one’s own thinking
Identify, Outline, Order Compare, Differentiate, Conclude Determine, Interpret, Illustrate Organize, Discriminate, Revise Rank, Assess, Estimate Combine, Compile, Hypothesize, Predict, Modify

Examples

Remember
Retrieve relevant information from long-term memory.
Understand
Construct meaning from oral, written, or graphic messages.
Apply
Carry out or use a procedure.
Analyze
Divide material into constituent parts and determine how they relate to one another and to overall structure.
Evaluate
Make judgments based on criteria and standards.
Create
Reorganize or put together elements to form a new structure or pattern.
Factual Knowledge
Basic elements needed to be acquainted with a discipline
List the five stages in Tuckman's theory of group development. Summarize the five stages of Tuckman's theory of group development. Translate the principles of Tuckman's theory to the act of group formation. Analyze the five stages of Tuckman's theory. Evaluate Tuckman's theory based on past group experiences. Create a plan to implement learning teams using Tuckman's theory.
Conceptual Knowledge
Relationships among basic elements that enable them to function together
List challenges to online teamwork. Explain challenges to online teamwork. Determine how to overcome challenges to online teamwork. Analyze the challenges of a past online team. Evaluate the effectiveness of solutions to online team challenges. Predict the effect of solutions to online team challenges.
Procedural Knowledge
Use of methods, skills, techniques, and algorithms
List each step of the SQ3R reading technique. Explain the steps of the SQ3R method. Determine the most appropriate type of reading material for the SQ3R technique. Distinguish the steps of the SQ3R method. Assess the overall effectiveness of the SQ3R technique. Design a learning plan for a student using the SQ3R technique.
Metacognitive Knowledge
Knowledge and awareness of one’s own thinking
List personal strengths and weaknesses related to your writing process. Describe personal strengths and weaknesses related to your writing process. Compare the personal usefulness of various writing strategies. Revise your current writing process to increase its effectiveness. Assess the impact of new strategies on your writing process. Predict the effect of new strategies on personal strengths and weaknesses.

Wrap-Up

Having a critical thinking model helps you understand your students’ current functioning and assist in improving their critical thinking skills to reach higher levels of cognitive and affective learning.

Bolin, A. U., Khramstova, I., & Saarnio, D. (2005). Using student journals to stimulate authentic learning: Balancing Bloom’s cognitive and affective domains. Teaching of Psychology 32(3), 154–159.